Category Archives: 8 History

8-7 Free Canadian Geographic Field Trip Challenge

Your class could win an all-expense paid trip to Quebec. Here’s what you need to do!

Choose a Parks Canada place that the class believes is extraordinary and create a one-minute video that demonstrates why the chosen place is significant to Canadians. Videos should focus on:

Natural significance – Tell us why Canadians should explore this place. Is your destination important to Canadians because of where it is located? For example, does it protect an important ecosystem? Or is it home to a species at risk? Does it feature a unique geographical feature? and/or;

Cultural significance –  Tell us how this place defines a part of the Canadian culture. Is your destination important to Canadians because of its cultural history? For example, was it the site of an invention or discovery? Or did an important historical event take place there? Does it tell the story of cultural tradition?

  • These themes can be covered through any course including social studies, history, geography, science, language arts and the arts.
  • All videos must:
    • Be the original creation of the classroom entrant as represented by the account. All elements, including music and images must be original or the entrant must have obtained all of the proper approvals and permissions from the copyright holders.
    • Acquire permission from students, parents/guardians and the school prior to including any video or sound clips, photos or other identifiable information.
    • Authorize the Contest Group Entities to use the contents of the entry for educational purposes. This includes rights to use, modify, broadcast, webcast, publish and distribute the entry or parts of the entry.
    • Be presented in at least one of Canada’s two official languages, English or French.
    • Be no longer than 60 seconds. Anything beyond the allotted time will not be considered as part of the finished product.
    • Be uploaded in any file type that is accepted by YouTube

A representative of the class must upload, before February 23, 2015, at 4:59:59 PM (Eastern Time), the video on the contest website where it will become available for public voting on March 2, 2015. Upon submission of the video, classes will have to complete an online form with a short description of the video, their rationale for selecting their chosen Parks Canada place and proof that the submissions was student driven. Portions of this form will be visible to the public while some will be visible only to the judges. To be considered student-driven, the majority of inspiration, planning, filming, editing and post-production must be done by students in the class. Teachers and other volunteers may assist as necessary; however the majority of work should be done by students.

There is a limit of one contest entry per eligible class; duplicate entries, incomplete entries, and entries with falsified information will be disqualified. The decision to disqualify any entry is at the sole discretion of the Contest Judges, and will occur without notice or communication to the entrant. The disqualification decision of the judges is final and not subject to review. Videos submitted that do not adhere to the required subject matter or file formats will be disqualified.

Only one (1) email address may be used by any individual who enters the Contest on behalf of his or her Grade 8/Secondary 2 class. In the event of a dispute regarding the identity of an entrant, the entry will be deemed to have been submitted by the authorized holder of the email address at the time of entry. For these purposes, the “authorized holder” is the natural person who is assigned to the submitted email address by an Internet access or online service provider, or other organization responsible for assigning email addresses for the domain associated with the submitted email address.

All entries must be received no later than February 23, 2015 at 4:59:59 PM (Eastern Time). Late entries will be disqualified. There is no fee to enter this contest, and no purchase is necessary.

Classes must engage the community to encourage votes for their video. The classes with the ten (10) videos that receive the most votes will be asked to explain in 250 words or less, the methods by which they promoted their video within the community. Classes must demonstrate community engagement in order to qualify for contest prizes.

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Intro to History

  1. Write down the thresholds that have happened throughout history.
  2. What is the Goldilocks principal?
  3. Is the time between thresholds getting bigger or smaller?
  4. Are the changes that happen from threshold to threshold getting bigger or smaller?
  5. What makes humans different from other species?
  6. What is the big threshold in technology recently?
    1. What are the benefits of understanding “big history”?

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50 Facts about Canada

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Globe & Mail: When Canada used hunger to clear the West

James Daschuk
The Globe and Mail
Published Last updated

Twenty years ago, Saskatoon scholar Laurie Barron cautioned that stories of sexual and physical abuse at Indian residential schools should be taken with a grain of salt; he thought they were just too horrific to be believed in their entirety. But national leader Phil Fontaine’s public admission of his abuse, the Royal Commission on Aboriginal People and the haunting testimony presented recently to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada have brought the horrors of the residential school system to the forefront of our consciousness. We are often shocked, but we really shouldn’t be surprised.

Nor should we be surprised by the revelations in Dr. Ian Mosby’s article about the medical experimentation on malnourished aboriginal people in northern Canada and in residential schools. Rather than feed the hungry among its wards (even adult “Registered Indians” were not full citizens until 1960), government-employed physicians used pangs of hunger to further their research into malnutrition, in a plot reminiscent of the Tuskegee experiment on African-Americans with syphilis, whose conditions were monitored rather than treated.

Researching my own book forced me to reconsider many of my long-held beliefs about Canadian history. A professor of mine at Trent University once explained that Canadian expansion into the West was much less violent than that of the United States’, because in that country, “the person with the fastest horse got the most land.” By contrast, in the Dominion’s march west, the land was prepared for settlement by government officials before the flood of immigrants.

What we didn’t know at the time was that a key aspect of preparing the land was the subjugation and forced removal of indigenous communities from their traditional territories, essentially clearing the plains of aboriginal people to make way for railway construction and settlement. Despite guarantees of food aid in times of famine in Treaty No. 6, Canadian officials used food, or rather denied food, as a means to ethnically cleanse a vast region from Regina to the Alberta border as the Canadian Pacific Railway took shape.

For years, government officials withheld food from aboriginal people until they moved to their appointed reserves, forcing them to trade freedom for rations. Once on reserves, food placed in ration houses was withheld for so long that much of it rotted while the people it was intended to feed fell into a decades-long cycle of malnutrition, suppressed immunity and sickness from tuberculosis and other diseases. Thousands died.

Sir John A. Macdonald, acting as both prime minister and minister of Indian affairs during the darkest days of the famine, even boasted that the indigenous population was kept on the “verge of actual starvation,” in an attempt to deflect criticism that he was squandering public funds.

Within a generation, aboriginal bison hunters went from being the “tallest in the world,” due to the quality of their nutrition, to a population so sick, they were believed to be racially more susceptible to disease. With this belief that aboriginal people were inherently unwell, their marginalization from mainstream Canada was, in a sense, complete.

For more than a century, Canadians have been accustomed to reports of terrible housing conditions on reserves, unsafe drinking water, dismal educational outcomes and, at least in Western Canada, prison populations disproportionally stacked with aboriginal inmates. Aboriginal leaders and young people such as those who embraced the Idle No More movement have been calling for Canadians to fundamentally acknowledge the injustices and atrocities of the past and fix the problems that keep indigenous Canadians from living the same quality of life as their non-aboriginal neighbours.

As the skeletons in our collective closet are exposed to the light, through the work of Dr. Mosby and others, perhaps we will come to understand the uncomfortable truths that modern Canada is founded upon – ethnic cleansing and genocide – and push our leaders and ourselves to make a nation we can be proud to call home.

Dr. James Daschuk is the author of Clearing the Plains: Disease, Politics of Starvation and the Loss of Aboriginal Life, an assistant professor in the faculty of kinesiology and health studies at the University of Regina and a researcher with the Saskatchewan Population Health and Evaluation Research Unit.

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Our Home & Native Land. Canadian Pride Facts

  1. Canada became a country on July 1, 1867, when the British North America Act was passed by the British Parliament.
  2. Canada comes from the aboriginal word “kanata,” which means “village” or “settlement.”
  3. Toronto is the largest city in Canada. It’s home to more than 4 million people and its dwellers are known to hold more university educations than any country in the world.
  4. The capital city, Ottawa, was originally named Bytown after Colonel John By, who headquartered there while building the Rideau Canal to connect the Ottawa River with Lake Ontario.
  5. The border between Canada and the United States is officially known as the International Boundary. At 8,892 km, including 2,475 miles between Canada and Alaska, it is the world’s longest border between two nations.
  6. The Canadian motto, A Mari Usque ad Mare, means “From sea to sea.”
  7. At 9,984,670 square kilometres, Canada is the second largest country in the world, behind Russia (17,075,000 sq. km.)
  8. Canada has the longest coastline of any country in the world at 243,042 km.
  9. North America’s lowest recorded temperature was -81.4 degrees Fahrenheit (-63 C) at Snag, Yukon Territory, on February 3, 1947.
  10. Canada contains 25% of the world’s wetlands.
  11. Manitou Lake on Manitoulin Island in Lake Huron is the world’s largest lake within a lake (66.1 sq. km.)
  12. Population 35,141,542 (estimate, April, 2013).
  13. The Mackenzie River is 4,241 km long, and it is the longest river in Canada.
  14. The world’s largest island in a freshwater lake is Manitoulin Island in Lake Huron, 2,765 sq. km.
  15. Canada’s largest, and one of the world’s greatest, earthquakes happened on August 22, 1949, off the Queen Charlotte Islands.
  16. Wood Buffalo National Park, located in northwestern Alberta and southern Northwest Territories, is Canada’s largest park at 44,807 sq. km. It was established in 1922 to protect the last remaining herds of bison in northern Canada. It is one of the largest in the world.
  17. Alert, in Nunavut territory, is the northernmost permanent settlement in the world.
  18. Great Slave lake in the Northwest Territories is the deepest Lake in Canada and the tenth largest in the world.
  19. The sun shines almost non-stop for three months during the summer in part of the Yukon and Nunavut Territories.
  20. The island of Newfoundland has no snakes, skunks or poison ivy.
  21. Prince Edward Island accounts for 0.1% of Canada’s total surface area.
  22. In 1867, Sir John A. Macdonald became the first Prime Minister of Canada. His picture is on the ten dollar bill.
  23. Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King often sought political advice from his dead mother. He was also very superstitious — waiting until the hands on a clock were aligned before making announcements in the House of Commons and other rather strange decisions.
  24. The Honourable Sir Charles Tupper served the shortest time as prime minister — 2 months and 7 days, from May 1 to July 8, 1896.
  25. Canada has the largest French population that never surrendered to Germany.
  26. We have the largest English population that never ever surrendered or withdrew during any war to anyone, anywhere.
  27. Caledon, Ont., 40 km northwest of Toronto and a world away, ranks as the safest city in Maclean’s annual crime ranking of Canada’s 100 largest cities. Its crime score is 87 per cent below the national average.
  28. The Regina Tornado of June 30, 1912, rated as F4 (winds of 330 to 416 kilometres per hour) was the most severe tornado known in Canada. It killed 28 people, injured hundreds and demolished much of the downtown area.
  29. The most severe flood in Canadian history occurred on October 14 to 15, 1954 when Hurricane Hazel dumped 214 mm of rain in the Toronto region in just 72 hours.
  30. The average dog sled team can kill and devour a full grown human in less than 3 minutes.
  31. Joe Shuster, co-creator of Superman. was born in Toronto.
  32. Ernie Coombs (Mr. Dressup) was Canadian. In 1996, he became a member of the Order of Canada. The Order of Canada is presented to a limited number of Canadians who exemplify the highest qualities of citizenship and whose contributions enrich the lives of their contemporaries.
  33. The tuck-away handles on our sacred two-four beer cases where the brainstorm of Canadian Steve Pasjack in 1957.
  34. The highest mountain in Canada is Mount Logan, Yukon Territory, at 5,959 m.


  • 36. Caulking gun
  • 37. Plexiglass
  • 38. The Blackberry
  • 39. The electric light bulb
  • 40. Electric range
  • 41. Electron microscope
  • 42. Standard time
  • 43. Telephones
  • 44. Paint roller
  • 45. Green garbage bag
  • 46. Zipper
  • 47. Wonderbra
  • 48. Apple pie
  • 49. Walkie-talkie
  • 50. Instant mashed potatoes
  • 51. Velcro
  • 52. Short-wave radios
  • 53. Canadian Joseph-Armand Bombardier was the inventor of the (Snow Machine) Ski-doo. It was supposed to be the ‘Ski-Dog’ because it was designed to replace the dogsled, but a brochure typo resulted in the world-famous brand ‘Ski-Doo’.
  • 54. Bloody Caesars
  • 55. Canadian Tire money, Vachon cakes, the Jolly Jumper, and Botox were all invented by Canadian women.
  • 56.  The world’s largest omelet was made by the Lung Association of Lanark, Leeds and Grenville in Ontario in May 2002. It weighed 2.95 tons, was made with about 165,000 eggs and was cooked in a specially made frying pan that measured more than 13 metres in diameter.
  • 57. About 5,231,500 people reported to the 2001 Census that they were bilingual (spoke both English and French),
  • 58. The London (Ontario) District Catholic School Board set a world record for the most simultaneous snow angels with 15,851 students, parents, administrators, and teachers from about 60 schools participating.
  • 59. Five-pin bowling was invented by T.E. Ryan of Toronto in 1909.
  • 60. The world’s largest totem pole was raised in Victoria B.C, and stands at 54.94m tall.
  • 61. British Columbia is a world-class diving destination. It’s home to over 70 different sea star species, the world’s largest octopus species and two distinct killer whale populations.
  • 62. According to the Guinness Book of World’s Records, the largest lobster was caught in 1977 in Nova Scotia and weighed 20.15 kg (44.4 lb).
  • 63. 70% of the world’s maple syrup is produced in Quebec.
  • 64. Montreal is the second largest French speaking city in the world, after Paris.
  • 65. The Tim Hortons chain was founded in 1964 in Hamilton, Ontario.
  • 66. Tim Hortons celebrated the landmark opening of its 2,000th store in December, 2000, at Richmond and Sherbourne streets indowntown Toronto.
  • 67. In 1967, the first McDonald’s restaurant outside the United States opened in Richmond, British Columbia.
  • 68. Canada hosted  its third Olympic Games in Vancouver during the month of February, 2010. It was previously host to the winter games in Calgary, 1988, and Montreal, 1976. The only other countries hosting more are the United States (8) and France (5).
  • 69. Insulin, a treatment for Diabetes, was discovered in 1921, by Canadians Frederick Banting and Charles Best.
  • 70. Canada has one of the lowest population densities in the world. Its population density is 3.2 people per sq. km., making Canada the ninth-most sparsely populated nation in the world.
  • 71. The NBA record for the greatest number of three-point shots made in a game by a team is 21, set by the Toronto Raptors on March 13, 2005.
  • 72. Canadian Wayne Gretzky has the most points in NHL history.
  • 73. The Montreal Canadiens have won more Stanley Cups than any other team in the history of hockey.
  • 74. Poutine originated in rural Quebec in the late 1950s. This fattening dish contains french fries topped with fresh cheese curds, covered with brown gravy.
  • 75. Canadian comedian/actor Jim Carrey, born James Eugene Carrey, made his comedy debut at age 15 atToronto’s Yuk Yuk’s club, wearing a yellow suit his mother had made for him. He bombed badly.
  • 76. Leslie Nielsen
  • 77. John Candy
  • 78. Dan Ackroyd
  • 79. Rick Moranis
  • 80. Martin Short
  • 81. Canadian John Hopps developed the first pacemaker.
  • 82. Canadians consume more macaroni and cheese than any other nation on earth (per capita).
  • 83. Canada also has the smallest jail in the world in Rodney, Ontario. It’s area is 24.3 sq. metres (about 270 sq ft).
  • 84. Canada’s economy is the ninth biggest economy of the world.
  • 85. Opposing the popular opinion, Canada doesn’t own the North Pole. Indeed, the North Pole is not owned by any country.
  • 86. Canada is the eighth biggest trader in the world. Amidst all producers of natural gas, copper, zinc, nickel, aluminum and gold in the world, Canada comes in the top five.
  • 87. Canada is also known to be the fifth largest energy producer.
  • 88. Canada has one of the highest tertiary education enrolment levels in the world.
  • 89.Smarties, Crispy Crunch and Coffee Crisp are products from Canada.
  • 90. Canadian smarties are better than American ones — ours are made with chocolate.
  • 91. The word cyberspace was coined by Canadian writer William Gibson.
  • 92. Winnie the Pooh Canadian.
  • 93. The 120-year-old Hospital for Sick Children, located in Toronto, is one of the world’s largest pediatric research institutes.
  • 94. Canada has almost 25 million acres of wheat planted  yearly.
  • 95. Canadians are long-lived. A baby girl born in Canada today can expect to reach, on average, 81 years while a baby boy will live to about 75 years.
  • 96. We have Canadian Tire money — and a chain of 457 Canadian tire stores to spend it in.
  • 97. The Mounted Police were formed in 1873, with nine officers. In 1920, the Mounted Police merged with the Dominion Police to become the famous Royal Canadian Mounted Police, an organization that now has more than 28,000 members.
  • 98. North America’s earliest undisputed evidence of human activity, 20,000-year-old stone tools and animal bones, have been
  • found in caves on the Bluefish River in northern Yukon.
  • 99. In 2007, The Royal Canadian Mint unveiled a record-breaking gold coin with a face value of C$1 million. It weighs 100 kilograms (220.5 pounds), has a diameter of 53 centimetres (21 inches) and is over 3 cm (1.2 inches) thick.
  • 100. Alberta is home to many of the world’s “largest,” including: The World’s Largest Badminton Racket, Easter Egg, Piggy Bank and Western Boot.
  • 101. The Moosehead Brewery in Saint John, New Brunswick, can churn out 1,642 bottles of beer per minute.
  • 102. The world’s strongest current is found in the Nakwakto Rapids at Slingsby Channel, British Columbia. The current has been measured at speeds up to 18.4 miles per hour.
  • 103. The most money raised on a charity run is $24.7 million by Terry Fox on his run across Canada for cancer.
  • 104. Lucy Maud Montgomery (Anne of Green Gables)
  • 105. Margaret Atwood (The Handmaid’s Tale)
  • 106. Alice Munro (Lives of Girls and Women).
  • 107. Stephen Leacock (Literary Lapses)
  • 108. Carol Shields (The Stone Diaries)
  • 109. Farley Mowat (Never Cry Wolf)
  • 110. The world record for the biggest slab of fudge is held by Chantelle Gorham of Northwest Fudge Factory. It weighed 2.29 tons (5,050 lbs.).
  • 111. The West Edmonton Shopping Mall covers 492,386 sq. meters (5.3 million sq. feet). That’s the equivalent of about 48 city blocks.
  • 112. The fastest run across Canada by a woman (St. John’s Nfld. to Tofino, B.C.) was made by Ann Keane in 2002. She covered 7,831 km (4,866 miles) in 143 days.
  • 113. The Rideau Canal Skateway in Ottawa is 7.8 km (4.8 miles) long and has a total maintained surface area of 165,621 sq. meters (1.8 million sq. feet).
  • 114. The world’s highest wine cellar is in the CN Tower’s “Cellar in the Sky,” 351 meters (1,151 feet) above Toronto.
  • 115. Canada is known as the home of large animals like the moose and grizzly bear, but it is also home to about 55,000 species of insects and about 11,000 species of mites and spiders.
  • 116. Bryan Adams.
  • 117. Paul Anka
  • 118. Anne Murray
  • 119. Rush
  • 120. the Guess Who
  • 121. Bachman Turner Overdrive
  • 122. Joni Mitchell
  • 123. Leonard Cohen
  • 124. Bruce Cockburn
  • 125. Neil Young,
  • 126. Roch Voisine
  • 127. Gordon Lightfoot
  • 128. Stompin’ Tom Connors.
  • 129. Amanda Marshall
  • 130. Alanis Morrissette
  • 131. The Tragically Hip
  • 132. k.d. lang
  • 133. Celine Dion
  • 134. Sarah McLachlan
  • 135. Award-winning country singer Shania Twain was born Eileen Edwards in Windsor, Ont., onAug. 28, 1965. She was raised in poverty in Timmins, Ontario.
  • 136. Montreal-born jazz pianist Oscar Peterson has recorded over 80 albums during his 47 years in the recording business. The legendary musician was inducted into the Juno Awards Hall of Fame in 1978 and awarded the Lifetime Achievement Award for 1996-1997.
  • 137. Hockey, lacrosse, baseball are all Canadian games.
  • 138. The baseball glove was invented in Canada in 1883.
  • 139. The goalie mask was invented in Canada.
  • 140. The size of our footballs fields and one less down make them Canadian.
  • 141. Basketball was invented by a Canadian.
  • 142. We have freedom.
  • 143. Numbering paint colors.
  • 144. Wayne & Schuster-Lorne Greene-Donald Sutherland

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